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Pulmonary medicine may be a subspecialty of general medicine that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions that affect the lungs and tract . Here are a number of the foremost common conditions that our pulmonologists diagnose and treat: Asthma

Critical Care may be a high-quality, peer-reviewed, international clinical medical journal. Critical Care aims to enhance the care of critically ill patients by acquiring, discussing, distributing, and promoting evidence-based information relevant to intensivists. Critical Care aims to supply a comprehensive overview of the medical care field.

The term cardiopulmonary disease describes a variety of conditions that affect the guts and lungs. These organs are closely connected, and a drag in one can spill over to the opposite . for instance , when the guts isn't ready to pump blood efficiently, normal oxygen movement within the lungs is reduced, causing shortness of breath. On the opposite hand, a drag with the lungs can cause the guts to possess to figure harder to urge oxygen from the lungs into the blood.

Emphysema is a condition that involves damage to the walls of the air sacs (alveoli) of the lung. Alveoli are small, thin-walled, very fragile air sacs located in clusters at the end of the bronchial tubes deep inside the lungs. There are about 300 million alveoli in normal lungs.

  • Shortness of breath, especially during light exercise or climbing steps
  • Ongoing feeling of not being able to get enough air
  • Long-term cough or “smoker’s cough”
  • Wheezing
  • Long-term mucus production
  • Ongoing fatigue


Allergies, also referred to as allergic diseases, are variety of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the system to typically harmless substances within the environment.These diseases include pollinosis , food allergies, atopic eczema , allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.
Common allergens include pollen and certain foods. Metals and other substances can also cause such problems. Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions. Their development is thanks to both genetic and environmental factors. The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), a part of the body's system , binding to an allergen then to a receptor on mast cells or basophils where it triggers the discharge of inflammatory chemicals like histamine.
Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may be a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. Symptoms include breathing difficulty, cough, mucus (sputum) production and wheezing. It's typically caused by long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate , most frequently from cigarette smoke. People with COPD are at increased risk of developing heart condition , carcinoma and a spread of other conditions.
Emphysema and bronchitis are the two commonest conditions that contribute to COPD. These two conditions usually occur together and may vary in severity among individuals with COPD.
Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the liner of the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. It's characterized by daily cough and mucus (sputum) production.
Pulmonary hypertension may be a sort of high vital sign that affects the arteries in your lungs and therefore the right side of your heart.
In one sort of pulmonary hypertension, called pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), blood vessels in your lungs are narrowed, blocked, or destroyed. The damage slows blood flow through your lungs, and vital sign within the lung arteries rises. Your heart must work harder to pump blood through your lungs. The extra effort eventually causes your cardiac muscle to become weak and fail.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but they can also damage other parts of the body. TB spreads through the air when a person with TB of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, or talks.
Lung disease is any problem within the lungs that forestalls the lungs from working properly. There are three main kinds of lung disease:
Airway diseases -- These diseases affect the tubes (airways) that carry oxygen and other gases into and out of the lungs. they typically cause a narrowing or blockage of the airways. Airway diseases include asthma, COPD and bronchiectasis. People with airway diseases often say they feel as if they're "trying to exhale through a straw."
Lung tissue diseases -- These diseases affect the structure of the lung tissue. Scarring or inflammation of the tissue makes the lungs unable to expand fully (restrictive lung disease). This makes it hard for the lungs to require in oxygen and release CO2 . People with this sort of lung disorder often say they feel as if they're "wearing a too-tight sweater or vest." As a result, they can not breathe deeply. Pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis are samples of lung tissue disease.
Lung circulation diseases -- These diseases affect the blood vessels within the lungs. they're caused by clotting, scarring, or inflammation of the blood vessels. They affect the power of the lungs to require up oxygen and release CO2 . These diseases can also affect heart function. An example of a lung circulation disease is pulmonary hypertension. People with these conditions often feel very in need of breath once they exert themselves.
Asthma could also be a condition during which your airways narrow and swell and will produce extra mucus. this may make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, a whistling sound (wheezing) once you exhale and shortness of breath.
Signs that your asthma is probably worsening include:
• Asthma signs and symptoms that are more frequent and bothersome
• Increasing difficulty breathing, as measured with a tool used to check how well your lungs are working (peak flow meter)
• The need to use a quick-relief inhaler more often
Lung cancer could also be a kind of cancer that begins within the lungs. Your lungs are two spongy organs in your chest that absorb oxygen once you inhale and release CO2 once you exhale.

The two general sorts of carcinoma include:
Small cell carcinoma -Small cell carcinoma occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers and is a smaller amount common than non-small cell carcinoma .
Non-small cell carcinoma -Non-small cell carcinoma is an umbrella term for several kinds of lung cancers. Non-small cell lung cancers include epithelial cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and enormous cell carcinoma
Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) are noninvasive tests that show how well the lungs are working. The tests measure lung volume, capacity, rates of flow, and gas exchange. This information can help your healthcare provider diagnose and choose the treatment of certain lung disorders.

There are two sorts of disorders that cause problems with air occupation and out of the lungs:
• Obstructive. this is often when air has trouble flowing out of the lungs thanks to airway resistance. This causes a decreased flow of air.
• Restrictive. this is often when the lung tissue and/or chest muscles can’t expand enough. This creates problems with air flow, mostly thanks to lower lung volumes.

Pulmonary Rehabilitation to assist you breathe easier and improve your quality of life surely lung conditions like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and CF . It also can improve lifestyle for people that have scoliosis or other health problems that limit lung function. Your doctor can also recommend pulmonary rehabilitation before and after surgery for a lung transplant or carcinoma .

Children who are critically ill require careful monitoring in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Pediatric critical care specialists coordinate the care of these children which is provided by a team of doctors, nurses, and other health care specialists. They use the special medicines or treatments that can only be offered in the PICU.

Pediatric critical care specialists generally provide the following care to children who are critically ill:

  • Diagnosis of children who have an unstable, life-threatening condition
  • Thorough monitoring, medication, and treatment of children in a PICU
  • Supervision of children on ventilators
  • Medical treatment for children with severe heart and lung disease
  • Placement of special catheters in the blood vessels and heart
  • Management of medications and treatments for children with brain trauma



Pulmonary rehabilitation, also known as respiratory rehabilitation, is an important part of the management and health maintenance of people with chronic respiratory disease who remain symptomatic or continue to have decreased function despite standard medical treatment. It is a broad therapeutic concept. It is defined by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society as an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory diseases who are symptomatic and often have decreased daily life activities. In general, pulmonary rehabilitation refers to a series of services that are administered to patients of respiratory disease and their families, typically to attempt to improve the quality of life for the patient. Pulmonary rehabilitation may be carried out in a variety of settings, depending on the patient's needs, and may or may not include pharmacologic intervention.


Pleurisy - an infection of the pleural cavity. Pleural effusion - the buildup of pleural fluid in the pleural cavity. Pneumothorax - the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity. Hem thorax - the presence of blood in the pleural cavity. Many different conditions can cause pleural problems. Viral infection is the most common cause of pleurisy. The most common cause of pleural effusion is congestive heart failure. Lung diseases, like COPD, tuberculosis, and acute lung injury, cause pneumothorax. Injury to the chest is the most common cause of hem thorax. Treatment focuses on removing fluid, air, or blood from the pleural space, relieving symptoms, and treating the underlying condition.


End-of-life care (EoLC) refers to health care for a person nearing the end of their life or in the advanced stage of a terminal illness. Generally speaking, people who are dying need care in four areas—physical comfort, mental and emotional needs, spiritual issues, and practical tasks.

End-of-life care involves a range of possible decisions, including hospice care, palliative care, patients' rights to choose, participation in clinical trials and choice of medical interventions, including continuance of routine medical interventions. Such decisions are informed by medical, financial and ethical considerations.

In most advanced countries, medical spending on people in the last twelve months of life makes up roughly 10% of total aggregate medical spending, while those in the last three years of life can cost up to 25%.